Title Natural products: seasonal variation in trichome counts and contents in Lycopersicum hirsutum f. glabratum.
Author Antonious GF, Kochhar TS, Simmons AM.
Issue J Environ Sci Health B. 2005;40(4):619-31.
Abstract Wild tomato leaves possess a pest-resistance mechanism in their glandular trichomes and the exudates they produce. Type IV and VI glandular trichomes on the leaves of five wild tomato accessions of Lycopersicum hirsutum f. glabratum (PI 126449, PI 134417, PI 134418, PI 251304, and LA 407) grown under greenhouse conditions were counted. Major chemical compounds from glandular leaf trichomes of the accessions tested were extracted, purified, and quantified at different periods during the growing seasons by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The toxicity of two methylketones (2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone), the major constituents of the accessions tested, to adults of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and fourth instar larvae of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), was determined using no-choice bioassays. 2-undecanone caused 80% mortality of the fourth instar larvae of the CPB at the highest concentration tested (100 mg 2-undecanone mL(-1) of acetone) while 2-tridecanone caused 72% mortality of whiteflies at 20 mg 2-tridecanone mL(-1) of 65% ethanol. The concentration of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone on the leaves of each of the five accessions of L. hirsutum f. glabratum and the mass spectra of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone are presented. Overall, the concentration of 2-undecanone on the leaves was significantly higher than 2-tridecanone. Concentration of the two methylketones varied among accessions and sampling season. Plants produced the highest concentration of 2-undecanone during the month of August. On average, each plant of accession PI 251304 provided 354 g fresh leaves (averaging about 52,353 cm2 exposed leaf surface area) and produced 32.5 and 8.7 mg of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, respectively. L. hirsutum f. glabratum accessions may become a valuable source of natural products, which could minimize reliance on synthetic pesticides.
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