Title Convergent evolution within the genus Solanum: the specialised anther cone develops through alternative pathways.
Author Glover BJ, Bunnewell S, Martin C.
Issue Gene. 2004 Apr 28;331:1-7.
Abstract Many angiosperm species produce cones of anthers which release pollen through pores in response to vibration by pollinating bees ("buzz-pollination"). Anther cones of varying degrees of strength are a defining morphological trait for the genus Solanum. Anthers arranged in a robust ('pepper pot') cone are restricted to a single clade within the genus, and may therefore be assumed to be monophyletic. We show that in some species within this clade, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the anther cone is held together by interlocking hairs (trichomes) along the edges of the anthers. In other species within the clade, such as woody nightshade (Solanum dulcamara), the expanded anther surfaces are closely appressed to form the tightly bound cone, strengthened by extracellular secretions. Ectopic expression of the MIXTA gene from Antirrhinum majus in S. dulcamara results in the formation of ectopic trichomes on the anthers which cause the cone to disintegrate. Therefore, these two species produce the same macroscopic structure through two mutually exclusive developmental routes and the robust anther cone is derived differently within the clade. This example demonstrates that convergence between closely related species can be easily mistaken for homology, and may thus be underestimated.
Link 15094186